Publications | 18 Oct, 2022

Working Paper 7: Finland: AI, policy innovation and the future of work and learning

Hanne Shapiro


Finland is perceived as one of the most innovative countries in the world, resting on high trust, well-being and global engagement. In a small open economy, the ability to navigate and build strategic relations in a growing economic and geo-political complexity, strategic foresight has over time become deeply embedded in policy making. Through the lens of the Finnish AI strategy process and the recent continuous learning reform, the paper discusses the deployment of foresight as a means to address critical uncertainties and plausible futures as means of long-term policy making. Secondly, the paper illustrates that even though Finland has built substantial futures capabilities, challenges remain when it comes to policy implementation. Issues emerging relate to who is invited to the table and the latent risks of groupthink. More importantly however, Finnish experiences suggest there is a need to consider how foresight methods can inform policy implementation processes, and what that would entail in terms of institutional arrangements and capabilities.


Working paper 7 by Hanne Shapiro. Download full working paper here.

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